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Mikheil Lermontov St #3

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 11:38

Simon Grigol Firumov (1889-1937) lived in this house in 1927-1936. He was born in Surmalin district of Erevan governorate. He studied Law at the Economic Department of Moscow State University. Parallel to studies he became the member of RSDWP (The Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party) Internationalist faction which served the reason for his deportation from Moscow in 1911. For a certain period of time he served in the army. In 1918 he was the member of Georgian “Parliament” and in the same period was exiled from Tiflis three times for anti-Menshevik activities. In 1920 he held various positions working for the Republic of Armenia.   In 1922-1925 he worked as a Trade Representative of Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic to Berlin and in 1925-27 as a Secretary of Plenipotentiary Representation of the USSR to Paris. Parallel to that, on the special assignment of Transcaucasian Regional Committee of RCP (B) (Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), Firumov was actively engaged in the struggle   against expatriates conducting their activities in Europe. In 1925 he became the Soviet Communist Party (B) member. In 1927 he returned to the USSR and worked in the Transcaucasian State Planning Commission. In 1936 he was appointed the Director of the Institute of Transportation Engineering. Soon he was arrested by the officials of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs. In June 1937 he gave testimony in favour of the investigation. On 25 June, 1937 circuit session of Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced Firumov to death by shooting and the seizure of his private property charged with being the member of Trotskyite–Zinovievist wrecking, counter-revolutionary organization.

 

Ivane Machabeli St. #11

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 12:27

This building was presumably constructed in the first years of the XX century. It acquired special importance after it had become Lavrenti Beria’s residence. The building served as residence in 1931-1938 when Beria held the position of the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Georgia. Later Beria was moved to Moscow and appointed to the post of People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR. Due to extraordinary significance of the building, all the documentation connected with it was made confidential and today it is even impossible to establish the name of the architect. Following the purge in 1930s, Machabeli Street was largely inhabited by people who had been actively engaged in the process of repressions.

Lado Asatiani St. #29

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 13:35

 

Lidya Ilarion Gasviani lived in this house until 1936.
 
On 20 July, 1936, the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of Georgia arrested Lidya Gasviani who was the Deputy Director of the State Publishing House. Gasviani was charged with  being one of the organizers of Counter-revolutionary Trotskyite Terrorist Centre in Georgia who allegedly conducted activities against the general policy of the party organizing terrorist acts against the party and the leaders of the Soviet state.
 
On 25 June, 1937, the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced L. Gasviani to the supreme measure of punishment deathby shooting. 

 

Geronti Kikodze St. #14

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 14:03

In the beginning of the XX century this house accommodated German Consulate. In the 20s – there was the Office of the Representative of People’s Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the USSR in Transcaucasia.

In 1934-36 Mate Ivane Skobelev lived in this house (1885-1937). He was born in Baku to the family of petroleum producer. He was the member of Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party from 1903. He organized the strike of Baku oil deposit workers’ in 1906. Fearing the expected arrest, Skobelev emigrated. He graduated from Vienna Polytechnic Institute. In 1910 he took part in the “Second International” Vienna Congress as a  Russian Social-Democratic  Workers’ Party delegate; as well as that, he was the deputy to the 4th State Duma, the representative of Russian population in Transcaucasia. In 1917 he was elected the Deputy Chairman of Petrograd Executive Committee. He held the position of the Minister of Labour of the Provisional Government. He attended Allied Negotiations in Paris as a Central Executive Committee delegate.
 
On 1 November, 1917 he was nominated for the position of the Minister of Foreign Affairs. After the Bolshevik coup and the dispersion of State Duma, Skobelev left for Azerbaijan. In 1920, after the Sovietization of Azerbaijan he moved to Tbilisi and then went to Paris as an official  Trade Representative of Democratic Republic of Georgia. From 1921,   being the holder of   the Soviet passport,  Mate Skobelev starts active work for establishing trade relationships between the USSR and France. In 1922 he was enlisted in the ranks of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolshevik). From the same year he becomes the USSR trade representative in France and Belgium. In 1924 he works in ARCOS (All-Russian Co-operative Society) department in Paris. In 1925 he returned to the USSR and worked for People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade   Agencies, the State Planning Commission and Radio Committee. In 1934 he was appointed the representative of the People’s Commissioner for the USSR Internal Affairs in Transcaucasia. In November 1937 he was arrested in Moscow charged with being the member of terrorist organization. On 29 July, 1938 the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced him to death. He was rehabilitated in 1965. 

 

Geronti Kikodze St. #11

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 14:46

This building was inhabited by high ranking Soviet Party officials after the establishment of the Soviet power.

 
In 1921-1941 here lived Philipe Esse Makharadze lived here. He was the chairman of the Georgian Revolutionary Committee in 1921; at different times he held various positions as the chairman of the Executive Council of Georgia, the chairman of Transcaucasian xecutive Committee, the chairman of Georgian Council of Peoples’ Commissars and other. Despite his successful   career of a party official, the terror of 1930s did affect him too.  In 1937 his son-in–law, Davit Dolidze (the principal of Kutaisi Pedagogical Institute) was arrested and executed; in 1938 his nephew shared the same fate.
 
Ivane (Mamia) Dimitri Orakhelashvili lived in the same house in 1921-1933. He was one of the leaders of the Red Army in Georgia; later he held various high positions in Georgian and Transcaucasian party and government organisations. In April 1937, Orakhelashvili was sent to Astrakhan and in December of the same year was detained there.
   
The Extraordinary Troika at the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs sentenced Orakhelashvili to death and arrested his wife, Maria Mikeladze-Orakhelashvili (1881-1937) who had been the party member since 1906 and the former People’s Commissioner of Education of Georgia. Before the detention she worked as a Head of the Department of Education of   Peoples’ Commissariat of Russian Soviet Federal Republic. In 1937 Maria Mikeladze-Orakhelashvili was also sentenced to death for counter-revolutionary activities. Famous Georgian conductor, Evgeni Mikeladze also lived in this house in 1932-1937. E. Mikeladze was the head of Tbilisi Z. Paliashvili State Opera and Ballet Theatre; he founded the Georgian State Symphony orchestra. E. Mikeladze was Mamia Orakhelashvili’s son –in- law, his daughter’s, Ketevan Orakhelashvili’s husband.
 
On 13 December, 1937 Evgeni Mikeladze was sentenced to be shot.
 
After his trial, Mamia Orakhelashvili’s daughter and Evgeni Mikeladze’s wife, Ketevan Orakhelashvili was arrested, who spent 17 years in exile.
 

Ilarion Ilarion Talakahadze, who in 1921 was appointed the Chairman of the Revolutionary Tribunal,  lived in the same house. In 1921-1922 he served as a Commissar of the Navy. In 1928-1931 he was the chairman of the Supreme Court. In 1937-1938, he worked as a prosecutor of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic,   the member of the Extraordinary “Troika” at the Ministry of Internal Affairs.  A lot of people had been deprived of life on his ruling.

 

Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani St. #3

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 14:56

 

In the beginning of the 1900s the Svanidze family lived in this house; sisters – Alexandra (Sashiko), Mariam (Mariko) and Ekaterine (Kato; 1882-1907)   ran Madam Hervey’s   Fashion House.  Their brother, Alexander Svanidze (1886-1942) brought his friend, Soso Jughashvili (Ioseb Stalin) to this house for his temporary abode in 1905, who soon married Kato Svanidze and in 1907 they had a son, Iacob. Kato died a few months later and the boy was raised by grandmother. He had almost no relationship with his father.
 
From 1920 Alexandre Svanidze held various high ranking positions in the state structures of the USSR. At different times he worked as a Deputy Head of Western Division of Peoples’ Commissariat of Internal Affairs, Commissioner for Education and Finances of Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Trade Envoy of the USSR to Germany, Head of Currency Department of Peoples’ Commissariat for Finances and the member of Collegium. His last position was the Deputy Head of the USSR State Banking Department.   Alexander Svanidze was arrested in 1937 and executed in 1942 charged with espionage; his wife and Mariko Svanidze, who had been imprisoned since 1937, were also executed. Iacob Jughashvili was taken prisoner of war in 1941 and in 1943 he died in Sachsenhousen concentration camp.

 

Pavle Ingorokva St. #3

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 15:05

In 1921-1925, Giorgi Alexandre Atarbegov (1891-1925) lived in this house. He was born in village Echmiadzin of Erevan governorate. He studied in progymnasiums of Baku and Erevan. He was involved in Marxist activities from an early age. In 1910 he entered the Law Department of Moscow University. In 1914, after his subsequent arrest he fled to Echmiadzin where he was hiding   for two years but was being persecuted there too for being the Bolshevik Party member. Atarbegov departed to Aleksadropol where he was promulgating Bolshevism among soldiers. In 1918 he participated in Bolshevik manifestations and upheaval in Sukhumi. At the end of the same year, as the troops had been driven out of Abkhazia, he moved to North Caucasus where he became the Deputy Chairman of North-Caucasian Extraordinary Commission and its actual leader. He is known for being relentless and ruthless.  Atarbegov personally took part in massive executions by firing squad. In 1919 he participated in the suppression of Astrakhan uprising where, according to some references, 1400 people were shot. For the atrocity he had revealed in Astrakhan uprising, Atarbegov was taken to Moscow under guard where All-Russian ExtraordinaryInvestigation Commission to Combat Counter-Revolution and Sabotagefound him guilty. However, as a result of the involvement of his influential friends - Stalin, Ordjonikidze and Kamo, Giorgi was acquitted and he   stayed under Felix Dzerzhinski’s subordination.

 
Atarbegov took part in routing operation for Mamontov’s liquidation. In 1920, during the Sovetization of Azerbaijan, he took part in massive execution of officers on the isle of Norgen. In January 1921 Atarbegov became the chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of North Armenian districts and the same year he took part in the suppression of Armenian uprising. From 1921 he started to work for the Extraordinary Committee of Georgia (Cheka). In 1925 he served as the representative of the People’s Commissar for the USSR Postal Service and  an Acting Deputy People’s Commissar for Workers’ and Peasant’s Inspection. On March 22, 1925 he died in an air crash, near Didube hippodrome. He is buried in the yard of the Blue Gallery.  

 

Paolo Iashvili St. #7

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 19:54
A famous Georgian poet and public figure Pavle Jibraili Iashvili lived in this building in 1921-1937.
 
Paolo Iashvili took active part in the activities of the Writers’ Union. Two magazines “Okros Verdzi” (“Golden Ram”) and “Tsisperi Khantsebi” (“Blue Horns”) were issued under his editorship in Kutaisi.
 
In 1927 P. Iashvili was nominated as a candidate for the Central Executive Committee membership of Georgia; in 1934 he was elected the member of Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee and the member of the board of Writers’ Union of the USSR. He was awarded with the Order of Labor of the Red Banner.
 
The campaign against “anti-party counter-revolutionary right wing Trotskyite centre” in 1936-1937 affected a certain group of writers as well. On 10 November, 1936 Paolo Iashvili was interrogated as a witness at the Peoples’ Commissariat of Internal Affairs of Georgia.
 
In his report delivered on 15 May, 1937, the First Secretary of the Central Committee, Lavrenti Beria spoke about treacherous and dubious activities of “Blue Horn” members.

Petre Chaikovsky St. #11

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 20:11

 

Elisabed (Liziko) Kavtaradze was born to a family of a well-known Georgian federalist family of Kaikhosro Kavtaradze in 1905. She spent most of her life in this house.
 
Liziko Kavtaradze is the most well-known female Georgian dissident. She became the member of underground Marxist organization being still very young. In August 1928 she was detained in Sukhumi and sent to Metekhi prison. She occurred in the same cell where her father had served his sentence in the times of Tsarist Russia. Shortly after, she was deported to the village of Kolpashovo, Tomsk region, where she stayed in exile until 1936.
 
In 1940 Liziko Kavtaradze was arrested again and exiled to the so called “Alzhir” (Akmolinskiy Camp for Wives of Parricides.).
 
She spent 28 years in exile all together. In 1956 Liziko Kavtaradze returned to Tbilisi and was soon rehabilitated.
 
She died in 1988.  
 

 

 

Pavle Ingorokva St. #20

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 20:20
A well-known Communist Party representative, Shalva Zurab Eliava lived in this house in 1924-1931.
 
Shalva Eliava joined the party in 1904; from 1919 he became the member of the Central Committee of   Russian Communist Party; he was the chairman of RSFSR (Russian Soviet Socialist Federal Republic) Council of Peoples’ Commissars and the head of the commission of All-Russian Executive Committee  for Turkestan Affairs. In 1920 he was a plenipotentiary representative of RSFSR in Turkey and Iran.  At the end of 1920 he was appointed the member of the Revolutionary-Military Council of the 11th Army.
 
In February 1921 Shalva Eliava was one of leaders to establish the Soviet Power in Georgia.
 
In 1921-1923 he was appointed as Peoples’ Commissar for Navy and Military in Georgian SSR. In 1923-1927 he served as the chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars; in 1927-1930 he is the chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.
 
In 1931-1935 Shalva Eliava held the position of the Deputy People’s Commissar of Foreign Trade and from 1936   the Deputy   People’s Commissar of Light Industry of the USSR.
 
In May 1937 Eliava was arrested, charged with being the leader of the right wing counter-revolutionary organization. On 3 December, 1937, the Extraordinary “Troika” at the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs sentenced him to death and seized his private property.
 
Karp Spiridon Modebadze, who was a revolutionary and a Communist Party member, lived in the same house. Until his arrest he had worked as a deputy director of Tbilisi Department Store Industrial Complex. On 21 January, 1937 he was arrested by the Committee of Internal Affairs. Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced K. Modebadze to death, with seizure of private property.